Disobedient Institutional Behavior
How We Break, Evade, or Violate Rules
Keywords:disobedience, normative acceptance, normative guidance, rule, social institutions
The paper aims to explain diﬀerent cases of disobedient institutional behavior using the attitude-based model. The issue of how to analyze and capture the faces of disobedience in a simple model is approached in three steps: ﬁrst, misbehavior is deﬁned as a certain lack in normative attitudes; second, these attitudes are distinguished in terms of normative acceptance and normative guidance; and third, combinations of these attitudes represent basic types of disobedience: opposing, transgressing and conforming. These three categories constitute an analytical typology of disobedient agents compatible with the theory of social institutions.
Abrams, D. 2018. “Deviance.” Encyclopaedia Britannica URL https://www.britannica.com/topic/deviance, (Accessed 2021/01/06).
Antweiler, C. 2019. “On the Human Addiction to Norms Social Norms and Cultural Universals of Normativity.” The Normative Animal? On the Anthropological Signiﬁcance of Social, Moral, and Linguistic Norms, edited by N. Roughley, and K. Bayertz, Oxford University Press.
Aoki, M. 2011. “Institutions as Cognitive Media between Strategic Interactions and Individual Beliefs.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 79 (1): 20–34, URL https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2011.01.025.
Ateinza, M., and J. R. Manero. 1998. A Theory of Legal Sentences. Dordtrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Axelrod, R. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Baumard, N. 2010. “Has punishment played a role in the evolution of cooperation? A critical review.” Mind and Society 9: 171–192, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s11299-010-0079-9.
Bicchieri, C. 2006. The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bicchieri, C. 2017. Norms in the Wild: How to Diagnose, Measure, and Change Social Norms. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bicchieri, C., and A. K. Chavez. 2013. “Norm Manipulation, Norm Evasion: Experimantal Evidence.” Economics and Philosophy 29: 175–198, URL https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266267113000187.
Bicchieri, C., and E. Dimant. 2019. “Nudging with care: the risks and beneﬁts of social information.” Public Choice 191: 443–464, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-019-00684-6.
Bicchieri, C., and P. Mcnally. 2018. “Shrieking Sirens. Schemata, Scripts, and Social Norms: How Change Occurs.” Social Philosophy and Policy 35 (1): 23–53, URL https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265052518000079.
Bicchieri, C., and H. Mercier. 2014. “Norms and Beliefs: How Change Occurs.” The Complexity of Social Norms, edited by M. Xenitidou, and B. Edmonds, Berlin: Springer.
Bloor, D. 1997. Wittgenstein, Rules and Institutions. New York: Routledge.
Brennan, G., L. Eriksson, R. E. Goodin, and N. Southwood. 2013. Explaining Norms. Oxford University Press.
Brownlee, K. 2017. “Civil Disobedience.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 Edition), edited by E. N. Zalta, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, URL https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2017/entries/civil-disobedience/.
Crawford, S., and E. Ostrom. 1995. “A Grammar of Institutions.” American Political Science Review 89 (3): 582–600, URL https://doi.org/10.2307/2082975.
Downes, D., P. Rock, and E. Mclaughlin. 2016. Understanding Deviance: A Guide to the Sociology of Crime and Rule-breaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7th edition, URL https://doi.org/10.1093/he/9780198747345.001.0001.
Fehr, E., and U. Fischbacher. 2004. “Third-party punishment and social norms.” Evolution and Human Behavior 25 (2): 63–87, URL https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(04)00005-4.
Fehr, E., and S. Gächter. 2002. “Altruistic punishment in humans.” Nature 415: 137–140, URL https://doi.org/10.1038/415137a.
Francesco, G., and F. Hindriks. 2020. “Institutions and Functions.” Institutions in Action, edited by T. Andina, and P. Bojanić, Berlin: Springer, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32618-0_2.
Gintis, H. 2009. The Bounds of Reason. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Guala, F. 2012. “Reciprocity: Weak or strong? What punishment experiments do (and do not) demonstrate.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1): 1–15, URL https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X11000069.
Guala, F. 2016. Understanding Institutions: The Science and Philosophy of Living Together. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hart, H. L. A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
Heckert, A., and D. M. Heckert. 2002. “A New Typology of Deviance: Integrating Normative and Reactivist Deﬁnitions of Deviance.” Deviant Behavior 23 (5): 449–479, URL https://doi.org/10.1080/016396202320265319.
Hindriks, F., and F. Guala. 2015. “Institutions, Rules, and Equilibria: A Uniﬁed Theory.” Journal of Institutional Economics 11 (3): 459–480, URL https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744137414000496.
Hlobil, U. 2016. “Social norms and unthinkable options.” Synthese 193: 2519–2537, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-015-0863-5.
Hodgson, G. 2006. “What Are Institutions?” Journal of Economic Issues 40 (1): 1–25, URL https://doi.org/10.1080/00213624.2006.11506879.
Horne, C. 2014. “The Relational Foundation of Norm Enforcement.” The Complexity of Social Norms, edited by M. Xenitidou, and B. Edmonds, Berlin: Springer, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05308-0_6.
Janssen, M. A., and E. Ostrom. 2014. “Vulnerability of Social Norms to Incomplete Information.” The Complexity of Social Norms, edited by M. Xenitidou, and B. Edmonds, Springer, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05308-0_9.
Kalish, C. 2005. “Becoming status conscious.” Philosophical Explorations 8 (3): 245–263, URL https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820500219359.
Kalish, C., and R. Cornelius. 2007. “What is to be Done? Children’s Ascriptions of Conventional Obligations.” Child Development 78 (3): 859–878, URL https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01037.x.
Kitcher, P. 2011. The Ethical Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Legros, S., and B. Cislaghi. 2020. “Mapping the social-norms literature: An overview of reviews.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 15 (1): 62–80, URL https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691619866455.
Lewis, D. K. 1969. Convention. A Philosophical Study. Harvard University Press.
North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. 2000. “Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (3): 137–158, URL https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.14.3.137.
Paternotte, C., and J. Grose. 2013. “Social norms and game theory: harmony or discord?” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3): 551–587, URL https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axs024.
Perkins, W. H. 2014. “Misperception Is Reality: The ‘Reign of Error’ About Peer Risk Behaviour Norms Among Youth and Young Adults.” The Complexity of Social Norms, edited by M. Xenitidou, and B. Edmonds, Berlin: Springer.
Pettit, P. 1990. “Virtus Normativa: Rational Choice Perspectives.” Ethics 100 (4): 725–755, URL https://doi.org/10.1086/293231.
Raz, J. 1990. Practical Reason and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rossano, F., H. Rakoczy, and M. Tomasello. 2011. “Young children’s understanding of violations of property rights.” Cognition 121 (2): 219–227, URL https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.06.007.
Roughley, N., and K. Bayertz. 2019. The Normative Animal? On the Anthropological Signiﬁcance of Social, Moral, and Linguistic Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, URL https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190846466.001.0001.
Schmidt, M. F. H., and H. Rakoczy. 2019. The Normative Animal? On the Anthropological Signiﬁcance of Social, Moral, and Linguistic Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Searle, J. 1995. The Construction of Social Reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Searle, J. 2010. Making the Social World. The Structure of Human Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sellars, W. 1969. “Language as thought and as communication.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (4): 506–527, URL https://doi.org/10.2307/2105537.
Sellars, W. 1974. “Meaning as functional classiﬁcation.” Synthese 27: 417–437, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00484606.
Skyrms, B. 1996. Evolution of the Social Contract. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sterelny, K. 2012. “Morality’s Dark Past.” Analyse & Kritik 34 (1): 95–116, URL https://doi.org/10.1515/auk-2012-0107.
Sugden, R. 1986. The Economics of Rights, Cooperation, and Welfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Svoboda, V. 2018. “The Nature and Diversity of Rules.” From Rules to Meanings: New Essays on Inferentialism, edited by O. Beran, V. Kolman, and L. Koreň, Routledge.
Tomasello, M. 2009. Why We Cooperate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tomasello, M. 2014. A Natural History of Human Thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Turri, J., and P. Blouw. 2015. “Excuse validation: a study in rule-breaking.” Philosophical Studies 172: 615–634, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-014-0322-z.
Ullmann-Margalit 2016. The Emergence of Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zachník, V. 2020. “When and Why Conventions Cannot Be Social Institutions.” Philosophia 48: 1235–1254, URL https://doi.org/10.1007/s11406-019-00125-0.
Copyright (c) 2022 Vojtěch Zachník
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.